The position of aluminum alloys in various industries has been increasing year by year, and the scope of use of aluminum alloys has become more and more extensive, not only for high-speed rail applications in aircraft manufacturing, precision molds, electronic parts, machinery manufacturing, communications equipment, electronic product machining, and transportation. Now, in the area of ​​maritime transport-the application of shipbuilding is also more extensive.

Ships are the main water transport, while ships are giant nautical vessels. Since the density of aluminum and aluminum alloy is relatively low, about 1/3 of that of steel, it is highly resistant to seawater and has good processability and weldability. Therefore, after industrialized production in the United States and Switzerland in 1888, In the fourth year, it was used to make motorboats, two years before the first use of aluminum on aircraft.

铝合金在欧洲和美国造船工业中的应用

In 1891, the first aluminum motorboat was built in Switzerland, and other countries have successively used aluminum to build hulls. However, since aluminum was only born at that time, there were not many types of aluminum alloys. The only few aluminum alloys had low strength and low corrosion resistance. They are satisfactory, limiting their applications in shipbuilding. The metallurgical industry is the leader and foundation of the shipbuilding industry. With the development of the metallurgical industry, the aluminum industry in the late 1920s provided the shipbuilding industry with a highly corrosion-resistant Al-Mg series alloy. Therefore, the application of aluminum alloys in shipbuilding Re-developed.

Marine materials (9): the application of aluminum alloys to civil ships in Europe and the United States In August 1931, the British made the “Diana II” all-aluminum yacht. Magnesium alloy, 16.75m in length, 3.65m in width, and 1.74m in draught. After more than 20 years of use, it is still intact and the boat has no corrosion. The yacht was exhibited at the London Aluminium Exhibition in 1955. After the “Diana II”, Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom, etc. have successively built some aluminum alloy small boats. The use of aluminum alloys for shipbuilding has promoted the development of hydrofoil boats. The Soviet Union built the “Paketa” hydrofoil passenger boat in 1958, carrying 66 people, and the hull was made of hard aluminum. In 1959, another “Meggio” (130 to 150 passengers) was built. Meteor) hydrofoil passenger boat, 34.4m long, maximum speed 80km / h, hull material is hard aluminum, riveted, the hydrofoil they later built using aluminum-magnesium alloy, welded. The “Cyclone” coastal hydrofoil built in 1962 uses a new type of plate that is made of ribs and plates, which reduces the mass of the hull by 10% to 15%. The length of the boat is 46.5m, the width is 9.0m, and the draft is 3.0m. , Displacement 108t, power 3181kW, speed 92.5km / h.

Since 1928, aluminum alloys have gradually been used to manufacture superstructures of large ships, and this year, deckhouses were constructed of aluminum alloy materials. In 1939, the upper deck, portholes and railings of the Norwegian cargo ship “Fernplant” with a capacity of 8,800 tons were all made of aluminum alloy. 14 tons were used instead of 40 tons of steel. After the Second World War, the metallurgical industry has made great progress. The superstructure of ships is widely used in aluminum alloys, and the amount and daily supply increase, especially for some luxury cruise ships: the United States cruise ship of the United States in 1952 Common 2000t aluminum, the ship is 305m long, 37m wide, with a displacement of 5914t, carrying 2,000 passengers; the Oriana and Canbeera built in Britain in 1960 each used more than 1,000 tons For aluminum, the displacement of the former is 40kt and the latter is 48kt.

Aluminum alloy materials are also used to manufacture other civil ships: some of the tankers built in Britain in the early 1950s were made of aluminum alloy, and each 30kt tanker used more than 1,000 tons of aluminum; in 1951, the Red Rose (Red Rose 27t aluminum for fishing boat “; Hungary designed a 100t alloy aluminum fishing boat in 1964. The aluminum used was mainly aluminum alloy containing 2.5% ~ 4% Mg; aluminum alloy was also used on barges. It was built in the United States in 1964 An all-aluminum barge uses more than 180 tons of aluminum. Regardless of whether it is sheet or extruded, it uses 5083 alloy. The cargo capacity is 14% higher than that of steel barges. Tugboats can also be made of aluminum alloy. The “Sauter” tugboat shell is welded with 5083 and 5086 alloys, and the manufacturing time is about 30% shorter than that of steel barges. Soviet-built train ferries are welded with 5056 and 5466 alloys. In 196, two biogas carriers were built in Britain. The 9 biogas tanks on board are welded from aluminum alloy.